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by 趙永祥 2016-03-29 07:54:26, 回應(0), 人氣(167)

                                                      常用片語
  1. Where there is a will, there is a way.
    在有意志力的地方,就有一條道路。∕有志者事竟成。── 諺語
    同: In the place where there is a will, there is a way.
  2. be on the brink of...  瀕臨??的邊緣
    同: be on the verge of...
    = be on the edge of...
    brink n. 邊緣
    Lillian is on the brink of an emotional breakdown.
    莉莉安正處於情緒崩潰的邊緣。
    *breakdown n. 崩潰
  3. with / in regard to...  關於……
    With regard to our honeymoon destination, I would prefer to go to a tropical island.
    關於我們蜜月旅行的地點,我比較想去一座熱帶島嶼。
  4. on a... scale  以……的規模
    衍: on a large / small scale  大∕小規模(地)
    As war broke out, people fled the city on a large scale.
    戰爭爆發時,人們大規模地逃離該市。
  5. result from...  起因於……
    反: result in...  造成……
    Cancer can result from too much exposure to the sun.
    癌症可能起因於過度曝曬於太陽光下。
by 趙永祥 2016-03-29 07:51:33, 回應(0), 人氣(177)
                                 
                           常見句子解析(2016/3/29)

  1. One of them is the global food shortage that promises to be a catastrophein the very near future.
    其中一項矛盾之處是在不久的將來注定會變成災難的全球糧食短缺。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有不定冠詞 a,得知空格應置子音為首的單數名詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的有 (B) trash(垃圾)、(D) catastrophe(災難)、(I) popularity(流行)及 (L) respect(方面;尊敬),惟根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。
    c. catastrophe n. 災難
    The prophet warned that a catastrophe would occur in 2012.
    該預言家警告在 2012 年將有一場大災難發生。
    *prophet n. 預言家,先知
  2. True, millions of people, especially in Africa and Asia, starve, balancing on the brink of death from hunger.
    的確,數百萬人(尤其是非洲與亞洲人)餓得發慌,他們在瀕臨餓死的邊緣掙扎著。
    理由:
    a. 本句主詞為 millions of people(數百萬人),視為複數,而空格後並無受詞,得知空格應置現在式或過去式複數不及物動詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的有 (C) dwindled(減少)、(E) starve(挨餓)及 (H) take(有效果),惟根據語意,(E) 項應為正選。
    c. starve vi. 挨餓,饑餓
    衍: be starving to death  餓死了
    (誇張用語,喻『很餓』)
    Since I didn't have time for breakfast, I was starving to death by lunchtime.
    由於沒時間吃早餐,到了中午我肚子都餓扁了。
  3. But it is also true that in the West, about 40 percent of all food ends up in the trash.
    而在西方國家約有百分之四十的食物最終被棄置在垃圾堆裡這卻也是事實。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有定冠詞 the,得知空格應置名詞。
    b. 選項中為名詞的尚有 (B) trash(垃圾)、(I) popularity(流行;受歡迎)及 (L) respect(方面;尊敬),惟根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。
    c. trash n. 垃圾(集合名詞,不可數)
    同: garbage n. 
    = rubbish n. 
    Susan is supposed to take out the trash every Friday, but she often forgets.
    蘇珊每週五都該把垃圾拿出去丟,但她經常忘記。
  4. With regard to the whole of the country, that amounts to a staggering waste of about US$165 billion.
    就整個國家來看,等同於浪費了驚人的一千六百五十億美元。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有代名詞 that(那),空格後有名詞詞組 a staggering waste of about 165 billion dollars(浪費了驚人的一千六百五十億美元),得知空格應置單數及物動詞或片語動詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的有 (C) dwindled(減少)及 (G) amounts to(總計達……),惟根據語意,(G) 項應為正選。
    c. amount to...  (加起來)總計達……
    同: add up to...
    The kid's doctor bills amounted to thousands of US dollars.
    那名小孩的醫藥費高達數千美元。
  5. Of course, this problem is a big headache for the government and the UN authorities, so individual groups are taking an initiative to see what they can do in this respect.
    當然,這個問題對政府和聯合國來說很傷腦筋,因此許多個別團體皆主動出擊,看看他們在這方面能做些什麼。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有形容詞 this(這),得知空格應置名詞以被 this 修飾。
    b. 選項中為名詞的尚有 (I) popularity(流行;受歡迎)及 (L) respect(方面;尊敬),惟根據語意,(L) 項應為正選。
    c. respect n. 方面
    同: aspect n.
    In many respects, this proposal is better than the last one.
    這份提案在許多方面都比前一份來得好。
  6. The so-called "sharing a refrigerator" campaign is gaining popularity in Europe.
    所謂『共享一臺冰箱』活動在歐洲越來越受歡迎。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    gain popularity  受到歡迎
    popularity n. 受歡迎;普及
    Organic vegetables are gaining popularity day by day.
    有機蔬菜日益受到歡迎。
    b. 根據上述用法,(I) 項應為正選。
  7. It is amazing to see how the volume of wasted food has dwindled in this program.
    能夠在這項計劃中看見食物浪費量減少的程度真的很令人訝異。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有表完成式的助動詞 has,空格後有介詞 in,得知空格應置過去分詞形式的不及物動詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的僅有 (C) dwindled(減少),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. dwindle vi. 減少
    As oil supplies dwindle, we need to find other sources of sustainable energy.
    由於原油供應逐漸減少,我們必須尋找其他的永續能源。
  8. Of course, sharing a fridge requires certain rules: giving each person enough space, labeling when the food was made, keeping the food in leak- and smell-proof containers, timely replenishing of the contents of the fridge, etc.
    當然,共享一臺冰箱需要一定的規則:給予每個人足夠的空間、標示出該食物是何時製造的、將食物存放在防漏及防止氣味擴散的容器裡,以及適時補充冰箱裡的東西等等。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有動名詞 giving(給)及名詞詞組 each person(每個人),空格後有名詞子句 when the food was made(該食物是何時製造的),得知空格應置動名詞以和 giving 形成對等。
    b. 選項中為動名詞的有 (F) uttering(說)及 (J) labeling(標示),惟根據語意,(J) 項應為正選。
    c. label vt. 在……標記;貼標籤 
    The doctor labeled the bottle of pills as expired.
    那名醫生在該藥瓶上貼上標籤以示過期。
  9. It really does not take much to make our neighbors happy.
    想要讓我們的鄰居快樂真的很簡單。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    It takes + 表條件的名詞 + to V  做……需要……(條件)
    It takes quite a bit effort to establish a successful business.
    開創成功的事業必須付出很大的心力。
    b. 根據上述用法,(H) 項應為正選。
  10. The "sharing a fridge" initiative has been tried on a wider scale in the Basque province of Spain, under the name "Solidarity Fridge," where"public" fridges offer food and welcome donations right on the city streets.
    『共享一臺冰箱』倡議行動曾以『團結冰箱』之名用更大規模的方式在西班牙巴斯克區試行,當地的『公共』冰箱就在市區街道上供應食物,且歡迎大家捐贈食物。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有表『地方』的先行詞 in the Basque province of Spain(在西班牙巴斯克區),空格後有一完整子句 "public" fridges offer food and welcome donations right on the city streets(『公共』冰箱就在市區街道上供應食物,且歡迎大家捐贈食物),得知空格內應置能修飾地方的關係副詞 where 來引導形容詞子句。
    This is the house where I once lived.
    這就是我曾經住過的房子。
    b. 根據上述用法,(K) 項應為正選。
       Dr. Chao
by 趙永祥 2016-03-29 07:45:09, 回應(0), 人氣(201)


Where There Is a Will, There Is a Way

有志者   事竟成   

小行動 大不同
by Igor Bagrov

Change our attitude, and we can make the world a better place.
改變我們的生活態度,我們能讓世界變得更美好。

  We live in a world of paradoxes. One of them is the global food shortage that promises to be a _(1)_ in the very near future. But is it really a huge, unsolvable problem? True, millions of people, especially in Africa and Asia, _(2)_, balancing on the brink of death from hunger. But it is also true that in the West, about 40 percent of all food ends up in the _(3)_. In the US alone, an average family throws out over 1,000 pounds of food every year. With regard to the whole of the country, that _(4)_ a staggering waste of about US$165 billion. Of course, this problem is a big headache for the government and the UN authorities, so individual groups are taking an initiative to see what they can do in this _(5)_.
  The so-called "sharing a refrigerator" campaign is gaining _(6)_ in Europe. In an office or a dormitory, people share the same fridge's contents instead of keeping an individual bottle of milk or a package of franks. It is amazing to see how the volume of wasted food has _(7)_ in this program. Of course, sharing a fridge requires certain rules: giving each person enough space, _(8)_ when the food was made, keeping the food in leak- and smell-proof containers, timelyreplenishing of the contents of the fridge, etc. 
  You will also be surprised by how much such a practice organizes us: we become less selfish and more cooperative, we learn new skills of living in a community, and it wakes up our dormant virtues of compassion and generosity. It really does not _(9)_ much to make our neighbors happy. 
  The "sharing a fridge" initiative has been tried on a wider scale in the Basque province of Spain, under the name "Solidarity Fridge," _(10)_ "public" fridges offer food and welcome donations right on the city streets. These may seem just like tiny steps in the right direction, but we should never forget that big things often result from small actions.

(A) many (B) trash (C) dwindled (D) catastrophe
(E) starve (F) uttering (G) amounts to (H) take
(I) popularity (J) labeling (K) where (L) respect

by 趙永祥 2015-04-14 21:46:34, 回應(0), 人氣(308)

          EAT: Story of Food  
                   為食之故事



2015/04/14 第209期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱 
優惠活動訊息:見訊息
  

EAT: Story of Food  為食之故
by Marcus Maurice

Food is an important gateway to understanding other cultures.
食物是了解其他文化的重要途徑。

  All human beings throughout time can agree on one thing — we like to eat. From the beginning of human history, eating is what has driven nearly everything we have ever done. Villages have always started near waterways where people could fish. Hunger taught many people to hunt their own food. Eventually, we learned enough about plants so that we could settle and farm. We ate as much food as possible, but these days that is not enough. As humans have become more sophisticated, our tastes have, too. Now, instead of just worrying about what we are going to eat, we think about flavors and convenience. Our appetites have shaped the planet, changed history, and even modified the future.
  This month on National Geographic Channel (NGC), a six-part mini-series called EAT: Story of Food digs deep into who we are and how food has shaped us over the years. One of the biggest food revolutionaries in the world was Julia Child. This American woman was an unlikely television star when she went on a Boston TV show to promote her recently releasedcookbook. Right away, people were enthralled with her, and she soon had her own show, The French Chef. Child taught people how to cook better food, made mistakes that normal people make, and introduced new tastes to American people's plates. Without Child, there would be no Jamie Oliver, Gordon Ramsay, Anthony Bourdain, or any others. This month on NGC, make sure you catch EAT: Story of Food and learn more about the cuisinethat helps us survive.

 
  1. gateway n. 途徑;入口處
    衍: a gateway drug  入門毒品,
    使人容易上鉤的初級毒品
  2. settle vi. 定居(常與介詞 in 並用)
    衍: settle down  安定下來
    The couple settled in Rome after they got married.
    這對情侶結婚後就在羅馬定居下來。
    Henry didn't settle down until he was 42 years old.
    亨利直到四十二歲才定下來。
  3. sophisticated a. 世故的;老練的
    A sophisticated man will always try to remain calm.
    老練的人總是會設法保持冷靜。
  4. flavor n. 味道 & vt. 調味
    衍: flavor A with B  用 B 將 A 調味
    This dish has an intense sour flavor.
    這道菜有濃烈的酸味。
    Taiwanese people are used to flavoring food with soy sauce.
    臺灣人習慣用醬油調味食物。
  5. convenience n. 方便
    衍: at sb's convenience  在某人方便時
    反: inconvenience [ "InkJn`vinyJns ] n. 不便,麻煩(之處)
    Please call me at your earliest convenience.
    請你一有空時就撥電話給我。
    The residents had to suffer the inconvenience of a broken elevator.
    這棟大樓的住戶必須承受電梯故障所帶來的不便。
  6. appetite n. 胃口
    衍: have an appetite for...  對……有胃口;喜歡……
    Pregnant women often have an appetite for sour foods.
    孕婦常常會想吃酸的食物。
  7. modify vt. 修改,更改
    衍: modified a. 改造的;修改的
    genetically modified food  基因改良食物(常簡寫為 GM food)
    The engineer modified the computer so that it would run faster.
    那位工程師把電腦做了變更,讓它運作更快。
    Many people still question the safety of eating genetically modified food.
    許多人對於食用基因改良食物的安全性仍存疑。
  8. revolutionary n. 革命家 & a. 革命性的;創新的
    衍: revolution n. 革命
    Sun Yat-sen was a famous revolutionary.
    孫中山先生是一位有名的革命家。
    Mr. Jackson's revolutionary ideas led to great change.
    傑克遜先生革命性的觀念導致巨大的改變。
    The Industrial Revolution changed human life forever.
    工業革命永遠改變了人類的生活。
    *the Industrial Revolution  工業革命
  9. promote vt. 推銷;促銷
    衍: promotion n. 推銷
    We promoted our products by giving away free samples.
    我們藉由分發免費試用品來推銷產品。
    Our public relations office is involved in the promotion of many new products.
    我們的公關部門正致力推銷多項新產品。
    *public relations  公共關係
  10. release vt. 發行;上映
  11. enthrall vt. 吸引;使著迷
    Al's novels have enthralled millions of readers for over twenty years.
    二十多年來,艾爾的小說吸引了數以百萬計的讀者。
  12. cuisine n. 菜餚,料理(不可數)

▼ waterway n. 河道;水路
▼ farm vi. 耕種,務農 & n. 農場

  1. dig into...  鑽研,挖掘……
    dig vt. & vi. 挖掘(三態為:dig, dug, dug。)
    No stone is left unturned as the historian and his team dig into America's past.
    在鑽研美國過往的歷史時,那位史學家與他的團隊不遺餘力。

為食之故
食物是了解其他文化的重要途徑。
  從古至今,所有人都會同意一件事 ── 我們都愛吃。自人類歷史的開端以來,飲食是驅使我們做出幾乎所有事情的動力。村落總是開始存在於人們能夠捕魚的水道附近。飢餓教導了許多人尋找自己的食物。最終,我們對植物有了足夠的了解,如此一來我們便可以定居和耕種。過去我們盡可能在量方面滿足自己,但如今光是這樣已不足夠。隨著人類變得越來越世故之際,我們的味覺亦變得講究起來了。今天,我們不僅會擔心要吃什麼,還會考慮口味與便利性。我們的口腹之慾塑造了這個星球的風貌、改變了歷史,甚至改變了未來。
  在本月的國家地理頻道當中,這齣分為六段的系列節目《為食之故》深入探討我們的本質以及多年來食物是如何塑造我們。世界上最偉大的美食革命家之一是茱莉亞‧蔡爾德。當她為了宣傳她剛問世的食譜而參與一個波士頓電視節目,這位美國女士不太像一位電視明星。沒多久,人們便為她著迷,而她很快地也擁有自己的電視節目《法國主廚》。蔡爾德教導大家如何烹調出更棒的食物、犯下一般人也會犯的錯,並將新風味帶入美國民眾的餐盤中。倘若沒有蔡爾德,就不會有傑米‧奧利佛、戈登‧拉姆齊、安東尼‧波登或任何其他人的出現。在本月的國家地理頻道,請務必收看《為食之故》並深入了解更多幫助我們生存的菜餚。

by 趙永祥 2015-02-10 22:41:48, 回應(0), 人氣(282)


                      長春藤英語電子報(2015/02/10)


2015/02/10 第201期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱  
優惠活動訊息:見訊息
  

Crowd Control 人群控制學問多
by Marcus Maurice

Instead of punishing people for bad behavior, why not reward them for good behavior?
與其處罰民眾的不良行為,何不獎勵他們的優良行為呢?

  In parks all over the world, getting people to clean up after their dogs has always been a chore. Everyone loves spending time with their dogs running around or playing fetch outdoors, but they loathe having to bend down and clean up the poop that their pets will eventually leave on the ground. Signs have been put up all over the parks to remind dog owners that they need to clean up the poop, and people have even been threatened with fines, but nothing seems to have had a long-term effect on solving this problem. In National Geographic Channel's (NGC) Crowd Control, producers think outside the box. Instead of punishing people, they decide to reward them. In one park, a trash receptacle is outfitted with sensors to detect when people deposit bags of poop in it. Once this happens, a reward in the form of dog treats is given to owners to be fed to their dogs. Thiscauses quite a stir and gets more people to clean up after their dogs.
  Another problem is jaywalking. While it seems like a minor crime, onepedestrian gets injured every eight minutes around the world from jaywalking. The main reason people jaywalk is that they are impatient. At street corners, waiting one minute for a light can seem like an eternity. On Crowd Control, however, a small video game is installed at a crosswalk sign. Pedestrians can play the game with each other, and when they do, they do not even realize they have been waiting for a minute or think about jaywalking. This creative solution to a problem is just another prime example of why everyone needs to watch Crowd Control on NGC this month. 

 
  1. punish vt. 懲罰
    衍: punish sb for...  因……懲罰某人
    punishment n. 懲罰
    I punished my daughter for smoking cigarettes.
    我因為女兒抽菸而懲罰她。
    You will receive severe punishment for breaking the law.
    你若犯法就會受到嚴厲的懲罰。
  2. reward vt. 獎賞 & n. 報酬
    衍: reward sb for (doing) sth  為了某人(從事)某事而給獎勵
    reward sb with sth  用某物獎賞某人
    Jason rewarded the children for behaving well.
    傑森因為這些小朋友表現良好而給予他們獎勵。
    The general rewarded the soldier with a medal.
    將軍用一枚獎章來獎賞這名士兵。
  3. chore n. 令人厭煩的任務;雜務
    衍: do chores  做雜事
    It is unfair to ask your eight-year-old sister to do all your chores.
    要求你八歲的妹妹做你所有的雜務很不公平。
  4. fetch n. & vt. 取來,拿來
    Please fetch me a glass of water with lemon.
    請幫我拿杯檸檬水來。
  5. loathe vt. 厭惡,憎恨
    衍: loathe N/V-ing  厭惡(做)……
    Stella loathes eggplants above all other vegetables.
    所有蔬菜中,史黛拉最討厭茄子。
    Ray loathed visiting his girlfriend's parents because they always asked him questions about his job.
    小雷很討厭去拜訪他女友的父母,因為他們總是會問他有關工作的事。
  6. eventually adv. 最後,終於
    We eventually found out why Joyce always looked so tired.
    我們終於弄清楚為何喬依斯總是看起來這麼疲倦。
  7. threaten vt. 威脅
    衍: threaten to V  威脅要……
    The police threatened to throw the man in jail if he didn't sit down and be quiet.
    警方威脅該名男子如果他不安靜坐好就要把他送進監獄。
  8. deposit vt. 放置;寄存
    Please deposit the money into my account by noon tomorrow.
    請在明天中午前把錢存進我的戶頭裡。
  9. jaywalking n. 違規穿越馬路
    衍: jaywalk vi. 違規穿越馬路
    A couple of pedestrians were given tickets for jaywalking.
    有幾名行人因違規穿越馬路而被開罰單。
    The last time Ian jaywalked, he nearly got run over by a truck.
    伊恩上次違規穿越馬路時,差點就被一輛卡車輾過。
  10. pedestrian n. 行人
  11. impatient a. 沒耐心的
    衍: impatience n. 不耐煩
  12. eternity n. 永恆;不朽
  13. crosswalk n. 行人穿越道
  14. prime a. 主要的;首要的
    My prime concern right now is finding the best vet for my sick dog.
    我目前主要的關心事項就是替我生病的狗狗尋找最好的獸醫。

 receptacle n. 容器

  1. clean up after an animal / sb
    跟在某動物後面收拾排泄物;跟在某人後面收拾東西
    I'm not your mother to clean up after you.
    我不是你老媽得跟在你後面收拾東西。
  2. bend down  彎下身來
  3. think outside the box  跳脫舊思維的框架;想出別出心裁的點子
    同: think out of the box
    By thinking outside the box, Sophie discovered something new.
    藉由突破思維模式,蘇菲發現了一些新的東西。
  4. be outfitted with...  配備……
    同: be equipped with...
    The luxury car is outfitted with a high-end stereo system.
    那輛豪華轎車配備有高端立體音響。
    *high-end a. 高端的
  5. cause / create a stir  引發迴響;造成轟動
    stir n. 轟動
    Our company's basketball shoe ads have caused a stir.
    我們公司的籃球鞋廣告造成極大轟動。

人群控制學問多
與其處罰民眾的不良行為,何不獎勵他們的優良行為呢?
  在世界各地的公園裡,要民眾清理自家狗狗的排泄物向來是一件麻煩事。人人都愛花時間跟自己的狗狗在戶外四處奔跑或是玩拋接遊戲,但他們不喜歡彎下腰來清理狗狗最終會留在地上的排泄物。公園四處設立了不少提醒狗主人必須清理排泄物的標語,而人們甚至會有面臨罰緩處分之虞,不過在解決這個問題上似乎沒有長遠的影響。在國家地理頻道的《人群控制學問多》單元裡,製作人們跳脫舊思維的框架。與其處罰民眾,他們反而決定要來獎勵他們。就在某一處公園裡,他們將垃圾桶裝設了感應器,民眾在把裝有排泄物的袋子放入時便會偵測出來。一旦偵測到,飼主會得到狗零食以作為獎勵方式,好拿來餵養他們的狗狗。此舉引起了極大的迴響,且讓更多人願意清理自己狗狗的排泄物。
  另一個問題則是違規穿越馬路。儘管這種罪行似乎並不嚴重,不過全世界因為違規穿越馬路而受傷的行人,每八分鐘就有一個。民眾違規穿越馬路的主要原因是他們沒有耐心。在街角等一分鐘紅綠燈似乎就像永恆一樣的漫長。然而,在《人群控制學問多》單元裡,他們在行人穿越道標誌上安裝了一臺小型遊戲機。行人可以彼此玩遊戲,當他們這麼做時,他們甚至沒有意識到自己已經等了一分鐘,或是想要違規穿越馬路。這項解決問題的方法極具創意,這也是為何要大家務必收看本月國家地理頻道《人群控制學問多》單元的另一項範例而已。