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長春藤英語電子報(2015/02/10)
by 趙永祥 2015-02-10 22:41:48, Reply(0), Views(509)


                      長春藤英語電子報(2015/02/10)


2015/02/10 第201期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱  
優惠活動訊息:見訊息
  

Crowd Control 人群控制學問多
by Marcus Maurice

Instead of punishing people for bad behavior, why not reward them for good behavior?
與其處罰民眾的不良行為,何不獎勵他們的優良行為呢?

  In parks all over the world, getting people to clean up after their dogs has always been a chore. Everyone loves spending time with their dogs running around or playing fetch outdoors, but they loathe having to bend down and clean up the poop that their pets will eventually leave on the ground. Signs have been put up all over the parks to remind dog owners that they need to clean up the poop, and people have even been threatened with fines, but nothing seems to have had a long-term effect on solving this problem. In National Geographic Channel's (NGC) Crowd Control, producers think outside the box. Instead of punishing people, they decide to reward them. In one park, a trash receptacle is outfitted with sensors to detect when people deposit bags of poop in it. Once this happens, a reward in the form of dog treats is given to owners to be fed to their dogs. Thiscauses quite a stir and gets more people to clean up after their dogs.
  Another problem is jaywalking. While it seems like a minor crime, onepedestrian gets injured every eight minutes around the world from jaywalking. The main reason people jaywalk is that they are impatient. At street corners, waiting one minute for a light can seem like an eternity. On Crowd Control, however, a small video game is installed at a crosswalk sign. Pedestrians can play the game with each other, and when they do, they do not even realize they have been waiting for a minute or think about jaywalking. This creative solution to a problem is just another prime example of why everyone needs to watch Crowd Control on NGC this month. 

 
  1. punish vt. 懲罰
    衍: punish sb for...  因……懲罰某人
    punishment n. 懲罰
    I punished my daughter for smoking cigarettes.
    我因為女兒抽菸而懲罰她。
    You will receive severe punishment for breaking the law.
    你若犯法就會受到嚴厲的懲罰。
  2. reward vt. 獎賞 & n. 報酬
    衍: reward sb for (doing) sth  為了某人(從事)某事而給獎勵
    reward sb with sth  用某物獎賞某人
    Jason rewarded the children for behaving well.
    傑森因為這些小朋友表現良好而給予他們獎勵。
    The general rewarded the soldier with a medal.
    將軍用一枚獎章來獎賞這名士兵。
  3. chore n. 令人厭煩的任務;雜務
    衍: do chores  做雜事
    It is unfair to ask your eight-year-old sister to do all your chores.
    要求你八歲的妹妹做你所有的雜務很不公平。
  4. fetch n. & vt. 取來,拿來
    Please fetch me a glass of water with lemon.
    請幫我拿杯檸檬水來。
  5. loathe vt. 厭惡,憎恨
    衍: loathe N/V-ing  厭惡(做)……
    Stella loathes eggplants above all other vegetables.
    所有蔬菜中,史黛拉最討厭茄子。
    Ray loathed visiting his girlfriend's parents because they always asked him questions about his job.
    小雷很討厭去拜訪他女友的父母,因為他們總是會問他有關工作的事。
  6. eventually adv. 最後,終於
    We eventually found out why Joyce always looked so tired.
    我們終於弄清楚為何喬依斯總是看起來這麼疲倦。
  7. threaten vt. 威脅
    衍: threaten to V  威脅要……
    The police threatened to throw the man in jail if he didn't sit down and be quiet.
    警方威脅該名男子如果他不安靜坐好就要把他送進監獄。
  8. deposit vt. 放置;寄存
    Please deposit the money into my account by noon tomorrow.
    請在明天中午前把錢存進我的戶頭裡。
  9. jaywalking n. 違規穿越馬路
    衍: jaywalk vi. 違規穿越馬路
    A couple of pedestrians were given tickets for jaywalking.
    有幾名行人因違規穿越馬路而被開罰單。
    The last time Ian jaywalked, he nearly got run over by a truck.
    伊恩上次違規穿越馬路時,差點就被一輛卡車輾過。
  10. pedestrian n. 行人
  11. impatient a. 沒耐心的
    衍: impatience n. 不耐煩
  12. eternity n. 永恆;不朽
  13. crosswalk n. 行人穿越道
  14. prime a. 主要的;首要的
    My prime concern right now is finding the best vet for my sick dog.
    我目前主要的關心事項就是替我生病的狗狗尋找最好的獸醫。

 receptacle n. 容器

  1. clean up after an animal / sb
    跟在某動物後面收拾排泄物;跟在某人後面收拾東西
    I'm not your mother to clean up after you.
    我不是你老媽得跟在你後面收拾東西。
  2. bend down  彎下身來
  3. think outside the box  跳脫舊思維的框架;想出別出心裁的點子
    同: think out of the box
    By thinking outside the box, Sophie discovered something new.
    藉由突破思維模式,蘇菲發現了一些新的東西。
  4. be outfitted with...  配備……
    同: be equipped with...
    The luxury car is outfitted with a high-end stereo system.
    那輛豪華轎車配備有高端立體音響。
    *high-end a. 高端的
  5. cause / create a stir  引發迴響;造成轟動
    stir n. 轟動
    Our company's basketball shoe ads have caused a stir.
    我們公司的籃球鞋廣告造成極大轟動。

人群控制學問多
與其處罰民眾的不良行為,何不獎勵他們的優良行為呢?
  在世界各地的公園裡,要民眾清理自家狗狗的排泄物向來是一件麻煩事。人人都愛花時間跟自己的狗狗在戶外四處奔跑或是玩拋接遊戲,但他們不喜歡彎下腰來清理狗狗最終會留在地上的排泄物。公園四處設立了不少提醒狗主人必須清理排泄物的標語,而人們甚至會有面臨罰緩處分之虞,不過在解決這個問題上似乎沒有長遠的影響。在國家地理頻道的《人群控制學問多》單元裡,製作人們跳脫舊思維的框架。與其處罰民眾,他們反而決定要來獎勵他們。就在某一處公園裡,他們將垃圾桶裝設了感應器,民眾在把裝有排泄物的袋子放入時便會偵測出來。一旦偵測到,飼主會得到狗零食以作為獎勵方式,好拿來餵養他們的狗狗。此舉引起了極大的迴響,且讓更多人願意清理自己狗狗的排泄物。
  另一個問題則是違規穿越馬路。儘管這種罪行似乎並不嚴重,不過全世界因為違規穿越馬路而受傷的行人,每八分鐘就有一個。民眾違規穿越馬路的主要原因是他們沒有耐心。在街角等一分鐘紅綠燈似乎就像永恆一樣的漫長。然而,在《人群控制學問多》單元裡,他們在行人穿越道標誌上安裝了一臺小型遊戲機。行人可以彼此玩遊戲,當他們這麼做時,他們甚至沒有意識到自己已經等了一分鐘,或是想要違規穿越馬路。這項解決問題的方法極具創意,這也是為何要大家務必收看本月國家地理頻道《人群控制學問多》單元的另一項範例而已。