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by 趙永祥 2018-01-07 20:05:06, 回應(0), 人氣(24)

SWOT analysis (or SWOT matrix

is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and is a structured planning method that evaluates those four elements of an organization, project or business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a company, product, place, industry, or person. It involves specifying the objectives of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. 


Some authors credit SWOT to Albert Humphrey, who led a convention at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500companies.


However, Humphrey himself did not claim the creation of SWOT, and the origins remain obscure. The degree to which the internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit.

  • Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others

  • Weaknesses: characteristics of the business that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others

  • Opportunities: elements in the environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage

  • Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project

Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective. First, decision-makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is notattainable, they must select a different objective and repeat the process.

Users of SWOT analysis must ask and answer questions that generate meaningful information for each category (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to make the analysis useful and find their competitive advantage.


Internal and external factors[edit]

So it is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you can win a hundred battles without a single loss. If you only know yourself, but not your opponent, you may win or may lose. If you know neither yourself nor your enemy, you will always endanger yourself.
The Art of War by Sun Tzu

SWOT analysis aims to identify the key internal and external factors seen as important to achieving an objective. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories:

  1. Internal factors – the strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization
  2. External factors – the opportunities and threats presented by the environment external to the organization


Analysis may view the internal factors as strengths or as weaknesses depending upon their effect on the organization's objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses (distractions, competition) for another objective. The factors may include all of the 4Ps as well as personnelfinancemanufacturing capabilities, and so on.


The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological changelegislation, and sociocultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or in competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix.


SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For example, it may tend to persuade its users to compile lists rather than to think about actual important factors in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists uncritically and without clear prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may appear to balance strong threats.


It is prudent not to eliminate any candidate SWOT entry too quickly. The importance of individual SWOTs will be revealed by the value of the strategies they generate. A SWOT item that produces valuable strategies is important. A SWOT item that generates no strategies is not important.

Use[edit]

The usefulness of SWOT analysis is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. SWOT analysis may be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state (objective) is defined. Examples include non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey.


Strategy building[edit]

SWOT analysis can be used effectively to build organizational or personal strategy. Steps necessary to execute strategy-oriented analysis involve identification of internal and external factors (using the popular 2x2 matrix), selection and evaluation of the most important factors, and identification of relations existing between internal and external features.[3]

For instance, strong relations between strengths and opportunities can suggest good conditions in the company and allow using an aggressive strategy. On the other hand, strong interactions between weaknesses and threats could be analyzed as a potential warning and advice for using a defensive strategy.[4]


Matching and converting[edit]

One way of using SWOT is matching and converting. Matching is used to find competitive advantage by matching the strengths to opportunities. Another tactic is to convert weaknesses or threats into strengths or opportunities. An example of a conversion strategy is to find new markets. If the threats or weaknesses cannot be converted, a company should try to minimize or avoid them.[5]


Corporate planning[edit]

As part of the development of strategies and plans to enable the organization to achieve its objectives, that organization will use a systematic/rigorous process known as corporate planning. SWOT alongside PEST/PESTLE can be used as a basis for the analysis of business and environmental factors.[6]

  • Set objectives – defining what the organization is going to do
  • Environmental scanning
    • Internal appraisals of the organization's SWOT, this needs to include an assessment of the present situation as well as a portfolio of products/services and an analysis of the product/service life cycle
  • Analysis of existing strategies, this should determine relevance from the results of an internal/external appraisal. This may include gap analysis of environmental factors
  • Strategic Issues defined – key factors in the development of a corporate plan that the organization must address
  • Develop new/revised strategies – revised analysis of strategic issues may mean the objectives need to change
  • Establish critical success factors – the achievement of objectives and strategy implementation
  • Preparation of operational, resource, projects plans for strategy implementation
  • Monitoring results – mapping against plans, taking corrective action, which may mean amending objectives/strategies[7]


Marketing[edit]

In many competitor analyses, marketers build detailed profiles of each competitor in the market, focusing especially on their relative competitive strengths and weaknesses using SWOT analysis. Marketing managers will examine each competitor's cost structure, sources of profits, resources and competencies, competitive positioning and product differentiation, degree of vertical integration, historical responses to industry developments, and other factors.

Marketing management often finds it necessary to invest in research to collect the data required to perform accurate marketing analysis. Accordingly, management often conducts market research (alternately marketing research) to obtain this information. Marketers employ a variety of techniques to conduct market research, but some of the more common include:

  • Qualitative marketing research such as focus groups
  • Quantitative marketing research such as statistical surveys
  • Experimental techniques such as test markets
  • Observational techniques such as ethnographic (on-site) observation
  • Marketing managers may also design and oversee various environmental scanning and competitive intelligence processes to help identify trends and inform the company's marketing analysis.

Below is an example SWOT analysis of a market position of a small management consultancy with specialism in HRM.


Source

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_analysis



by 趙永祥 2015-05-07 09:33:20, 回應(0), 人氣(572)


Marketing vs. Sales

Marketing

For any company selling a product the concepts of marketing and sales are very important as they can mean the difference between success and failure. While they are often used interchangeably or grouped together they are two different concepts and it is important to understand those differences. This article will help you understand both concepts clearly when it comes to Marketing vs. Sales.


Sales

Sales refers to the short term need to close a sale, get an agreement signed, or ultimately do what needs to be done to sell whatever it is you are selling. Sales techniques and strategies are really based on what it takes to ‘close the deal’, which is crucial to any business. If you get customers in the door but cannot get them to buy a product, there is a problem with your sales strategy. Sales strategies are focused on the individual buyer and what needs to be done for them to pull out their wallet, or click on the buy button when it comes to online selling. Companies typically set sales volume targets for a period (weeks, months, and quarters) and have strategies in place where the individuals responsible for actually selling can make those targets.


by 趙永祥 2015-05-07 09:29:43, 回應(0), 人氣(506)


Internet Marketing Methods for Small Businesses


Building a website is just the beginning of marketing your business on the internet. Retail stores advertise in many ways to get live customers to walk through the door. Your site is a cyber door and you still have to advertise to get customers to enter.

Be social

Social network sites like Facebook and Twitter are helpful in getting others to know what you have to offer and developing a community.  Some call them gossip sites, but the truth is word of mouth advertising works.  Facebook pages can be created with ease.  The personal interaction with your clients and friends is invaluable.  Keep your tweets informative and fun for your followers and you will see your customer base grow.

Get on top

When prospective customers are searching the internet for your product or service, it is important that your company appears at the top of the list.  Improve your search engine ranking by using keywords that will match what the customer is looking for.  There are several sites that can help you choose keywords that may help you get a higher rating with search engines, like Google Insights or Google AdWords Keyword Tool.

Start a Blog

Everyone is doing it; there are millions of sites on the web where you can do it too.  You can set up a blog on your website or take advantage of other sites that allow open discussions.  When you make comments and share ideas on other related business sites you are getting free publicity and increasing your search engine rank at the same time.  Be sure to use your company name and keywords in your blog to increase your ratings.

Keep it fresh

Update your website often.  Maintaining a website yourself can become overwhelming when you have a business to run.  You can hire an outside web designer to build your site, but if you do, be sure you learn and understand the basics.  You can save a lot of money if you do minor updates on your own.  And who knows your business better than you?

Get published

Everyone is an expert at something.  You are the pro when it comes to your business.  Let others know how you can help them by writing articles and stories about your experiences.  There are many article directories that are looking for quality work to publish.  You can write about your topics, gain recognition with your peers and increase search ranking for free.

Let your web address be known

Print your website address on business cards, letter heads and brochures.  Yellow page and newspaper ads should never be published without your web address.  Mobile advertising on vehicles can be as simple as a one-liner in the back window of a car, or make a statement and turn your truck into an ad on wheels with vinyl graphics.  Pens, hats and even t-shirts are also effective ways to promote your website.

Free business listings

Search your company name and you will be surprised at the many business listing sites.  Claim your listing and customize the information with pictures, logos, contact information and links to your website.

Inquiries

Allow customers to email directly from your site if they have questions or comments.  Offer a newsletter or special discount in exchange for their email address. Build a database for future internet promotions.